In 1698, Edward Tyson, an English anatomist, attempted to treat a sick chimpanzee. A group of sailors who had captured it in what is now Angola brought the young male chimp to Tyson after it developed an abscess in its mouth. Tyson referred to the chimpanzee as his “Pygmie” wondering if it should be classified as a human. The Pygmie died in Tyson’s care, and having never encountered such a human-like animal, Tyson undertook to study its anatomy. While the experience of seeing the Pygmie alive would influence Tyson’s impressions of the animal’s nature, the animal dissected served as a window through which Tyson claimed to better understand how humans and apes were connected on the great chain of being. This research resulted in, for Tyson, a narrower definition of the ontological category of human and a broader definition of “brute” animal (animals without a rational soul).